As used in this title, unless the context requires a different meaning:
“Board” or “State Board” means the Board of Education.
“Department” means the Department of Education.
“Division superintendent” means the division superintendent of schools of a school division.
“Elementary” includes kindergarten.
“Elementary and secondary” and “elementary or secondary” include elementary, middle, and high school grades.
“Governing body” or “local governing body” means the board of supervisors of a county, council of a city, or council of a town, responsible for appropriating funds for such locality, as the context may require.
“Middle school” means separate schools for early adolescents and the middle school grades that might be housed at elementary or high schools.
“Parent” or “parents” means any parent, guardian, legal custodian, or other person having control or charge of a child.
“Person of school age” means a person who will have reached his fifth birthday on or before September 30 of the school year and who has not reached twenty years of age on or before August 1 of the school year.
“School board” means the school board that governs a school division.
“Superintendent” means the Superintendent of Public Instruction.
There shall be a system of free public elementary and secondary schools established and maintained as provided in this title and administered by the Board of Education, the Superintendent of Public Instruction, division superintendents and school boards.
The general supervision of the public school system shall be vested in the Board of Education.
The Board shall elect from its membership a president for a term of two years.
Before entering upon the duties of office, a person appointed to the Board shall take and subscribe the oath prescribed for an officer of this Commonwealth as provided in Chapter 1 (§ 49-1 et seq.) of Title 49.
The Board of Education may adopt bylaws for its own government and promulgate such regulations as may be necessary to carry out its powers and duties and the provisions of this title.
The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall be appointed by the Governor, after consultation with the Board of Education among others, subject to confirmation by the General Assembly, for a term coincident with that of the Governor making the appointment. Any vacancy shall be filled in the same manner. The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall be an experienced educator.
Before entering upon the duties of his office, the Superintendent of Public Instruction shall take and subscribe the oath prescribed for an officer of this Commonwealth as provided in Chapter 1 (§ 49-1 et seq.) of Title 49.
he Superintendent of Public Instruction shall:
1. Serve as secretary of the Board of Education;
2. Provide such assistance in his office as shall be necessary for the proper and uniform enforcement of the provisions of the school laws in cooperation with the local school authorities;
3. Prepare and furnish such forms for attendance officers, teachers and other school officials as are required by law;
4. (Expires July 1, 2025) At least annually, survey all local school divisions to identify critical shortages of (i) teachers and administrative personnel by geographic area, by school division, or by subject matter and (ii) school bus drivers by geographic area and local school division and report such critical shortages to each local school division and to the Virginia Retirement System;
5. Develop and provide to local school divisions a model exit questionnaire for teachers;
6. Along with the State Health Commissioner, work to combat childhood obesity and other chronic health conditions that affect school-age children;
7. Designate an employee of the Department of Education to serve as its liaison to the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia and the State Board for Community Colleges; and
8. Perform such other duties as the Board of Education may prescribe.
The Board of Education shall prescribe by regulation the minimum qualifications for the position of division superintendent of schools and a copy of such regulations shall be furnished to all applicants.
A. The division superintendent of schools shall be appointed by the school board of the division from the entire list of eligibles certified by the State Board. All contract terms for superintendents shall expire on June 30. The division superintendent shall serve for an initial term of not less than two years nor more than four years. At the expiration of the initial term, the division superintendent shall be eligible to hold office for the term specified by the employing school board, not to exceed four years.
Except as provided in subsection B, the division superintendent shall be appointed by the school board within 180 days after a vacancy occurs. In the event a school board appoints a division superintendent in accordance with the provisions of this section and the appointee seeks and is granted release from such appointment prior to assuming office, the school board shall be granted a 60-day period from the time of release within which to make another appointment.
B. A school board that has not appointed a superintendent within 120 days of a vacancy shall submit a written report to the Superintendent of Public Instruction demonstrating its timely efforts to make an appointment. Upon request, a school board shall be granted up to an additional 180 days within which to appoint a division superintendent.
C. No school board shall renegotiate a superintendent’s contract during the period following the election or appointment of new members and the date such members are qualified and assume office.
D. Whenever a superintendent’s contract is being renegotiated, all members of the school board shall be notified at least 30 days in advance of any meeting at which a vote is planned on the renegotiated contract unless the members agree unanimously to take the vote without the 30 days’ notice. Each member’s vote on the renegotiated contract shall be recorded in the minutes of the meeting.
Each local school board shall evaluate the division superintendent annually consistent with the performance objectives set forth in Guidelines for Uniform Performance Standards and Evaluation Criteria for Teachers, Administrators, and Superintendents as required by § 22.1-253.13:5.
The department of education shall consist of the county school board, the division superintendent of schools and the officers and employees thereof. Except as herein otherwise provided, the county school board and the division superintendent of schools shall exercise the powers conferred and perform the duties imposed upon them by general law. The county school board shall be composed of not less than three nor more than seven members, who shall be chosen by the board of county supervisors. The exact number of members shall be determined by the board.
Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this section, the county school board in a county which is contiguous to a county having the urban county executive form of government shall consist of the same number of members as there are supervisors’ election districts for the county, one member to be appointed from each of the districts by the board of county supervisors.
The board may also appoint a county resident to cast the deciding vote in case of a tie vote of the school board as provided in § 22.1-75. Any tie breaker shall be appointed for a four-year term whether appointed to fill a vacancy caused by expiration of a term or otherwise.
The chairman of the county school board, for the purpose of appearing before the board of county supervisors, shall be considered head of this department, unless the school board designates some other person in the department for such purpose.
A. As used in this section:
“Abusive conduct” means conduct of a school board employee in the workplace that a reasonable person would find hostile and that is severe enough to cause physical harm or psychological harm to another school board employee based on a determination in which the following factors are considered: the severity, nature, and frequency of the conduct and, when applicable, the continuation of the conduct after a school board employee requests that it cease or demonstrates outward signs of physical harm or psychological harm in the face of the conduct. “Abusive conduct” includes verbal or physical conduct that a reasonable person would find threatening, intimidating, or humiliating; the gratuitous sabotage or undermining of another school board employee’s work performance; attempts to exploit another school board employee’s known psychological or physical vulnerability; or repeated infliction of verbal abuse, such as the use of derogatory remarks, insults, or epithets. “Abusive conduct” does not include (i) a single act, unless it is especially severe, or (ii) conduct that the school board proves with clear and convincing evidence is necessary for the furtherance of its legitimate and lawful interests.
“Abusive work environment” means a workplace in a school division in which abusive conduct occurs.
“Physical harm” means a material impairment of a school board employee’s physical health or bodily integrity, as documented by a licensed physician or another licensed health care provider.
“Psychological harm” means a material impairment of a school board employee’s mental health, as documented by a licensed psychologist, psychiatrist, or psychotherapist or another licensed mental health care provider.
B. Each school board shall implement policies and procedures to educate school board employees about bullying, as defined in § 22.1-276.01, and the need to create a bully-free environment.
C. Each school board shall adopt policies to:
1. Prohibit abusive work environments in the school division;
2. Provide for the appropriate discipline of any school board employee who contributes to an abusive work environment; and
3. Prohibit retaliation or reprisal against a school board employee who alleges an abusive work environment or assists in the investigation of an allegation of an abusive work environment.
D. Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit a school board’s authority to adopt policies to prohibit any other type of workplace conduct as the school board deems necessary.
Any division superintendent, member of a school board or other school officer or any principal or teacher in a public school violating any provision of this title shall be guilty of a Class 4 misdemeanor if no other penalty is prescribed.
A. Each school board shall ensure that aides assigned to work with a teacher who has primary oversight of students with autism spectrum disorders receive training in student behavior management within 60 days of assignment to such responsibility.
The Board of Education shall provide training standards that school boards may use to fulfill the requirements of this subsection.
B. The Board of Education shall establish a training program for school board employees who assist in the transportation of students on school buses, including individuals employed to operate school buses and school bus aides, on autism spectrum disorders, including the characteristics of autism spectrum disorders, strategies for interacting with students with autism spectrum disorders, and collaboration with other employees who assist in the transportation of students on school buses. Each school board employee who assists in the transportation of students with autism spectrum disorders on school buses shall participate in such training program.
A. Each parent of a student enrolled in a public school has a duty to assist the school in enforcing the standards of student conduct and compulsory school attendance in order that education may be conducted in an atmosphere free of disruption and threat to persons or property, and supportive of individual rights.
B. A school board shall provide opportunities for parental and community involvement in every school in the school division.
C. Within one calendar month of the opening of school, each school board shall, simultaneously with any other materials customarily distributed at that time, send to the parents of each enrolled student (i) a notice of the requirements of this section; (ii) a copy of the school board’s standards of student conduct; and (iii) a copy of the compulsory school attendance law. These materials shall include a notice to the parents that by signing the statement of receipt, parents shall not be deemed to waive, but to expressly reserve, their rights protected by the constitutions or laws of the United States or the Commonwealth and that a parent shall have the right to express disagreement with a school’s or school division’s policies or decisions.
Each parent of a student shall sign and return to the school in which the student is enrolled a statement acknowledging the receipt of the school board’s standards of student conduct, the notice of the requirements of this section, and the compulsory school attendance law. Each school shall maintain records of such signed statements.
D. The school principal may request the student’s parent or parents, if both parents have legal and physical custody of such student, to meet with the principal or his designee to review the school board’s standards of student conduct and the parent’s or parents’ responsibility to participate with the school in disciplining the student and maintaining order, to ensure the student’s compliance with compulsory school attendance law, and to discuss improvement of the child’s behavior, school attendance, and educational progress.
E. In accordance with the due process procedures set forth in this article and the guidelines required by § 22.1-279.6, the school principal may notify the parents of any student who violates a school board policy or the compulsory school attendance requirements when such violation could result in the student’s suspension or the filing of a court petition, whether or not the school administration has imposed such disciplinary action or filed a petition. The notice shall state (i) the date and particulars of the violation; (ii) the obligation of the parent to take actions to assist the school in improving the student’s behavior and ensuring compulsory school attendance compliance; (iii) that, if the student is suspended, the parent may be required to accompany the student to meet with school officials; and (iv) that a petition with the juvenile and domestic relations court may be filed under certain circumstances to declare the student a child in need of supervision.
F. No suspended student shall be admitted to the regular school program until such student and his parent have met with school officials to discuss improvement of the student’s behavior, unless the school principal or his designee determines that readmission, without parent conference, is appropriate for the student.
G. Upon the failure of a parent to comply with the provisions of this section, the school board may, by petition to the juvenile and domestic relations court, proceed against such parent for willful and unreasonable refusal to participate in efforts to improve the student’s behavior or school attendance, as follows:
1. If the court finds that the parent has willfully and unreasonably failed to meet, pursuant to a request of the principal as set forth in subsection D of this section, to review the school board’s standards of student conduct and the parent’s responsibility to assist the school in disciplining the student and maintaining order, and to discuss improvement of the child’s behavior and educational progress, it may order the parent to so meet; or
2. If the court finds that a parent has willfully and unreasonably failed to accompany a suspended student to meet with school officials pursuant to subsection F, or upon the student’s receiving a second suspension or being expelled, it may order the student or his parent, or both, to participate in such programs or such treatment, including, but not limited to, extended day programs, summer school, other educational programs and counseling, as the court deems appropriate to improve the student’s behavior or school attendance. The order may also require participation in a parenting, counseling or a mentoring program, as appropriate or that the student or his parent, or both, shall be subject to such conditions and limitations as the court deems appropriate for the supervision, care, and rehabilitation of the student or his parent. In addition, the court may order the parent to pay a civil penalty not to exceed $500.
H. The civil penalties established pursuant to this section shall be enforceable in the juvenile and domestic relations court in which the student’s school is located and shall be paid into a fund maintained by the appropriate local governing body to support programs or treatments designed to improve the behavior of students as described in subdivision G 2. Upon the failure to pay the civil penalties imposed by this section, the attorney for the appropriate county, city, or town shall enforce the collection of such civil penalties.
I. All references in this section to the juvenile and domestic relations court shall be also deemed to mean any successor in interest of such court.
A. The county school board and the division superintendent of schools shall exercise all the powers conferred and perform all the duties imposed upon them by general law.
B. The county school board shall be composed of not less than three nor more than six members chosen by the board of county supervisors to serve staggered four-year terms. Initial terms may be less than four years to establish the staggered membership. The terms of no more than three members shall expire in any one year. The board of county supervisors shall establish by resolution the number of school board members and the staggered membership. The school board membership may be increased from time to time up to six members. Three-member boards need not be staggered. All appointments to fill vacancies shall be made by the board of county supervisors and shall be for the unexpired terms.
C. Each member shall receive as compensation for his services such annual salary as may be prescribed pursuant to § 22.1-32.
D. The board of county supervisors may also appoint a resident of the county to cast the deciding vote in case of a tie vote of the school board as provided in § 22.1-75. The tie breaker, if any, shall be appointed for a four-year term whether appointed to fill a vacancy caused by expiration of a term or otherwise.
E. Notwithstanding the above provisions, the Board of Supervisors of Scott County may establish a staggered membership for its school board with the school board members serving three-year terms and the Board of Supervisors of Carroll County may continue to appoint five members to its school board to serve staggered five-year terms.
F. Notwithstanding any contrary provisions of this section, a county which has an elected school board shall comply with the applicable provisions of Article 7 (§ 22.1-57.1 et seq.) of Title 22.1.
The county health officer shall be chosen by the board of county supervisors from a list of eligibles furnished by the State Board of Health. He shall exercise all the powers conferred and shall perform all the duties imposed upon the local health officer and perform such other duties as may be imposed upon him by the board of county supervisors. The board of county supervisors may select two qualified citizens of the county, who shall serve without pay, and who together with the county health officer shall constitute the county board of health. Such board shall advise and cooperate with the county health officer. The board may at any time be abolished by the board of county supervisors. The board of county supervisors may, in lieu of establishing a local board of health as herein provided, operate its health department as a part of a State Board of Health district.
The board shall, except as otherwise provided in this chapter, establish a schedule of compensation for officers and employees which shall, so far as practical, provide uniform compensation for like service. The compensation prescribed shall be subject to such limitations as may be made by general law.
The form of county organization and government provided for in this chapter shall be known and designated as the county executive form. The provisions of this chapter shall apply only to counties which have adopted the county executive form.
The board shall be the policy-determining body of the county and shall be vested with all rights and powers conferred on boards of supervisors by general law, consistent with the form of county organization and government provided in this chapter.
The activities or functions of the county shall, with the exceptions herein provided, be distributed among the following general divisions or departments:
1. Department of finance.
2. Department of social services.
3. Department of law enforcement.
4. Department of education.
5. Department of records.
6. Department of health.
The board may establish any of the following additional departments, and such other departments as it deems necessary to the proper conduct of the business of the county:
1. Department of assessments.
2. Department of public works.
Any activity which is unassigned by this form of county organization and government shall, upon recommendation of the county executive, be assigned by the board to the appropriate department. The board may further, upon recommendation of the county executive, reassign, transfer, rename or combine any county functions, activities or departments.
The sheriff shall exercise the powers conferred and perform the duties imposed upon sheriffs by general law. He shall have the custody of, and be charged with the duty of feeding and caring for, all prisoners confined in the county jail. He shall perform such other duties the board imposes upon him.
A. The Governor may suspend, temporarily and for a period not to exceed one year, any mandate, or portion thereof, prescribed by any unit of the executive branch of state government on a county, city, town, or other unit of local government upon a finding that it faces fiscal stress and the suspension of the mandate or portion thereof would help alleviate the fiscal hardship.
However, for a period beginning July 1, 2010, and ending July 1, 2012, the Governor may suspend any such mandate for a period not to exceed two years upon proper application by a locality pursuant to this section.
B. No application shall be made by the locality until approved by resolution of the governing body.
C. At the time of application, the following information shall be published in the Virginia Register: (i) the name of the petitioning locality, (ii) the mandate or portion thereof requested to be suspended, (iii) the impact of the suspension of the mandate on the ability of the local government to deliver services, (iv) the estimated reduction in current budget from the suspension, and (v) the time period requested for suspension. Publication in the Virginia Register shall occur at least 20 days in advance of any suspension by the Governor.
D. No later than January 1 of each year, the Governor shall submit to the General Assembly a report that identifies each petitioning locality, the mandate or portion thereof for which suspension was sought, and the response provided to the locality.
E. Nothing in this section shall apply to the Department of Education.
In making a determination of fiscal stress, the Governor may consider, but is not limited to, the following factors: any changes in anticipated revenue, income distribution of residents, revenue effort, revenue capacity, and changes in local population and employment levels.
There is hereby created in the state treasury a special nonreverting fund to be known as the COVID-19 Relief Fund, referred to in this section as “the Fund.” The Fund shall be established on the books of the Comptroller. All funds appropriated to the Fund and any gifts, donations, grants, bequests, and other funds received on its behalf shall be paid into the state treasury and credited to the Fund. Interest earned on moneys in the Fund shall remain in the Fund and be credited to it. Any moneys remaining in the Fund, including interest thereon, at the end of each fiscal year shall not revert to the general fund but shall remain in the Fund. Moneys in the Fund shall be used by the Governor solely for the purposes of responding to the Commonwealth’s needs related to the Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Expenditures and disbursements from the Fund shall be made by the State Treasurer on warrants issued by the Comptroller upon written request signed by the Governor or his designee.
As used in this chapter, unless context requires another meaning:
“Administrative act” includes an action, omission, decision, recommendation, practice, or other procedure of the Department, a local department, an adoption attorney, or a child-placing agency with respect to a particular child related to adoption, foster care, or protective services.
“Adoption attorney” means an attorney acting as counsel in an adoption proceeding or case.
“Central registry” means the system maintained at the Department of Social Services pursuant to § 63.2-1515.
“Child” means an individual under the age of 18.
“Child abuse” means harm or threatened harm to a child’s health or welfare that occurs through nonaccidental physical or mental injury, sexual abuse, sexual exploitation, abandonment, or maltreatment by a parent, a legal guardian, or any other person responsible for the child’s health or welfare or by a teacher, a teacher’s aide, or a member of the clergy.
“Child-caring institution” means a child care facility that is organized for the purpose of receiving minor children for care, maintenance, and supervision, usually on a 24-hour basis, in buildings maintained by the child-caring institution for that purpose, and that operates throughout the year. An educational program may be provided, but the educational program shall not be the primary purpose of the facility. “Child-caring institution” includes a maternity home for the care of mothers who are minors, an inpatient substance use disorder treatment facility for minors, and an agency group home that is described as a small child-caring institution, owned, leased, or rented by a licensed agency providing care for more than four but less than 13 minor children. “Child-caring institution” also includes institutions for developmentally disabled or emotionally disturbed minor children. “Child-caring institution” does not include (i) a licensed or accredited educational institution whose pupils, in the ordinary course of events, return annually to the homes of their parents or guardians for not less than two months of summer vacation; (ii) an establishment required to be licensed as a summer camp by § 35.1-18; or (iii) a licensed or accredited hospital legally maintained as such.
“Child neglect” means harm or threatened harm to a child’s health or welfare by a parent, legal guardian, or any other person responsible for the child’s health or welfare that occurs through either of the following:
1. Negligent treatment, including the failure to provide adequate food, clothing, shelter, or medical care, though financially able to do so, or the failure to seek financial or other reasonable means to provide adequate food, clothing, shelter, or medical care; or
2. Putting the child’s health or welfare at unreasonable risk through failure of the parent, legal guardian, or other person responsible for the child’s health or welfare to intervene to eliminate that risk when that person is able to do so and has, or should have, knowledge of any such risk.
“Child-placing agency” means (i) any person who places children in foster homes, adoptive homes, or independent living arrangements pursuant to § 63.2-1819; (ii) a local board that places children in foster homes or adoptive homes pursuant to §§ 63.2-900, 63.2-903, and 63.2-1221; or (iii) an entity that assists parents with the process of delegating parental and legal custodial powers of their children pursuant to Chapter 10 (§ 20-166 et seq.) of Title 20. “Child-placing agency” does not include the persons to whom such parental or legal custodial powers are delegated pursuant to Chapter 10 (§ 20-166 et seq.) of Title 20. Officers, employees, or agents of the Commonwealth or any locality thereof, acting within the scope of their authority as such, who serve as or maintain a child-placing agency shall not be required to be licensed.
“Children’s Ombudsman” or “Ombudsman” means the individual appointed to head the Office of the Children’s Ombudsman under § 2.2-439.
“Child-serving agency” means (i) a state agency that provides services to children, including the Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Services, the Department of Education, the Department of Health, the Department of Juvenile Justice, the Department of Social Services, and the Office of Children’s Services, and (ii) a local entity that provides services to children and that receives funding from a state agency under clause (i). “Child-serving agency” does not include any law-enforcement agency.
“Complainant” means an individual who makes a complaint pursuant to § 2.2-441.
“Department” means the Department of Social Services.
“Foster care” means care provided to a child by a child-caring institution or a foster parent, children’s residential facility, or group home licensed or approved by the Department under Chapter 9 (§ 63.2-900) of Title 63.2; care provided to a child in a relative’s home under a court order; or any other care provided at the time the child’s custody has been given to a government agency.
“Law-enforcement agency” means any crime victim and witness assistance program whose funding is provided in whole or in part by grants administered by the Department of Criminal Justice Services pursuant to § 9.1-104, any state or local police or sheriff’s department, any office of an attorney for the Commonwealth, or the Office of the Attorney General.
“Local department” means the local department of social services of any county or city in the Commonwealth.
“Office” means the Office of the Children’s Ombudsman established under § 2.2-439.
Any of the following individuals may make a complaint to the Ombudsman with respect to a particular child, alleging that an administrative act is contrary to law, rule, or policy; imposed without an adequate statement of reason; or based on irrelevant, immaterial, or erroneous grounds:
1. The child, if the child is able to articulate a complaint;
2. A biological parent of the child;
3. A foster parent of the child;
4. An adoptive parent or a prospective adoptive parent of the child;
5. A legally appointed guardian of the child;
6. A guardian ad litem of the child;
7. A relative of the child or any person with a legitimate interest as defined in § 20-124.1;
8. A Virginia legislator;
9. An individual required to report child abuse or child neglect under § 63.2-1509; and
10. An attorney for any individual described in subdivisions 1 through 7.
The Children’s Ombudsman has the authority to do all of the following with regard to children receiving child-protective services, in foster care, or placed for adoption:
1. Pursue all necessary action, including legal action, to protect the rights and welfare of such children;
2. Pursue legislative advocacy in the best interest of such children;
3. Review policies and procedures relating to any child-serving agency’s involvement with such children and make recommendations for improvement; and
4. Subject to an appropriation of funds, commence and conduct investigations into alleged violations of the rights of a foster parent.
The form of county organization and government provided for in this chapter shall be known as the county board form. The provisions of this chapter shall apply only to counties which have adopted the county board form.
Every person before entering upon the discharge of any function as an officer of this Commonwealth shall take and subscribe the following oath: “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Virginia, and that I will faithfully and impartially discharge all the duties incumbent upon me as ____________________ according to the best of my ability, (so help me God).”
Any person reappointed to any office filled by gubernatorial appointment for a subsequent term to begin immediately upon expiration of an existing term shall not be required to renew the oath set out in this section; however, the original oath taken shall continue in effect with respect to the subsequent term.
A. Subject to the approval of the Governor, the Division shall establish a program of blanket surety bonding to provide surety for the faithful performance of duty for all state employees required by statute to be bonded, and for other agency employees handling funds or having access to funds whose function, in the opinion of the agency head and the Division, should be bonded.
B. Local employees, including superintendents and jail officers of regional jail facilities as described in § 53.1-110, local constitutional officers, and those employees of the Supreme Court for whom the Commonwealth pays all or part of the costs of surety bonds shall be required to participate in the blanket surety bond program adopted by the Division through the Comptroller and the Compensation Board. The Division shall exclude clerks of the circuit court with respect to the moneys they hold pursuant to § 8.01-582 insofar as coverage is provided under § 2.2-1841 for their faithful performance concerning those moneys. Before implementing the program, the Division shall determine that the program will be of less cost to the Commonwealth than the aggregate of individual bonds costs.
C. The blanket surety bonding plan for state employees shall be submitted to the Governor for approval prior to implementation.
D. Employees or officers of a public service authority created under the Virginia Water and Waste Authorities Act (§ 15.2-5100 et seq.) may participate in the blanket surety bond program adopted by the Division through the Comptroller and the Compensation Board whenever any federal or state agency lends or guarantees funds to a public service authority created under the Virginia Water and Waste Authorities Act where the funds are utilized in the construction or capitalization of projects authorized under the Act, and there is a condition of the loan or guarantee that those employees or officers of the authority who have access to the funds be bonded. Participation by such employees or officers shall be approved by the governing body of the county or city that created the authority or is a member of the authority, with approval of the Division.
The Division shall establish a program of blanket surety bonding to provide surety for the faithful discharge of duty with respect to moneys held pursuant to §§ 8.01-582 and 8.01-600 by all general receivers and clerks. General receivers and clerks shall participate in the program. The Division’s cost of obtaining and administering the blanket surety bond shall be paid from those moneys covered by the bond.
The county officers shall give such bonds as required by general law, except that the treasurer’s bond shall be in such penalty as the court or judge requires, but not less than fifteen percent of the amount to be received annually by him. In addition thereto, the board may fix and require bonds in excess of the amounts so required, and to require bonds of other county officers and employees in their discretion, conditioned on the faithful discharge of their duties and the proper accounting for all funds coming into their possession.
The county executive shall give bond in the amount of not less than $5,000. The director of finance shall give bond in the amount of not less than fifteen percent of the amount of money to be received by him annually. If the county executive serves also as director of finance, he shall give bond in the full amounts indicated above. The board may fix bonds in excess of these amounts and require bonds of other county officers in their discretion, conditioned on the faithful discharge of their duties and the proper account for all funds coming into their possession.
Every bond required by law to be taken or approved by or given before any court, board or officer, unless otherwise provided, shall be made payable to the Commonwealth of Virginia, with surety deemed sufficient by such court, board or officer. Every such bond required of any person appointed to or undertaking any office, post or trust, and every bond required to be taken of any person by an order or decree of court, unless otherwise provided, shall be with condition for the faithful discharge by him of the duties of his office, post or trust. When such bond is required to be taken or approved by or before the Governor, a court or the clerk of a court, it shall be proved or acknowledged before the Governor or court or clerk, as the case may be, and recorded by the Secretary of the Commonwealth in the first case, or by the clerk of the court in the other cases. When the bond is taken under an order or decree in a pending cause a certified copy thereof shall be filed in the cause by the clerk and charged as costs therein, and upon his failure to file such copy, he shall be fined ten dollars. Every such bond shall contain, as to the respective obligors, such a waiver as is provided for in § 34-22. In any such bond the liability of the surety or sureties may be limited to such sum or sums as they may respectively require.
The proper court, whenever, in its opinion, it may be necessary for the protection of the public interests, may order any officer, of whom a bond is required by law, to give a new bond, or a bond in addition to one already given, within such time, not less than ten nor more than thirty days, as the court may prescribe; but the officer shall be served with a copy of a summons or rule, at least ten days before the order is made, citing him to appear and show cause against the same. The summons or rule shall be awarded whenever the court deems it proper, or on application to the court by the attorney for the Commonwealth, or, if the application is to the Supreme Court or the Court of Appeals, by the Attorney General. Such order shall be made by the circuit court of the county or city, if such officer is an officer of such county or city or any district thereof or by the Supreme Court or Court of Appeals, if he is a clerk of either court. Any new bond or additional bond given before the Supreme Court or the Court of Appeals shall be certified and transmitted to the clerk, to whom the original bond is required to be delivered, to be recorded by him. The bond may be given before the court requiring it or the judge thereof in vacation, or, if the court is the Supreme Court or the Court of Appeals, before either court or any three of the judges thereof in vacation; and when the bond is given in vacation, it shall be certified and returned by the judge or judges, before whom it is given, to the clerk of the proper court, who shall file and record the same in his office. If any officer fail or refuse to give the bond so required of him within the time prescribed, his office shall be deemed vacant.
When it is provided by any section of this Code, or shall be provided by any subsequent statute, that any new bond, or bond in addition to one already given, may be required to be given by any officer, fiduciary or any other person, if such new bond, when required, be given and accepted, the sureties in the former bond and their estates shall, except in cases where it is otherwise expressly provided, be discharged from all liability for any breach of duty committed by their principal after such new bond is so given and accepted. If such additional bond, when required, be given and accepted, the former bond shall continue in force and have the same effect in all respects as if such additional bond had not been required, given and accepted, except that in such case the sureties in the additional bond shall be jointly liable with the sureties in the former bond for any breach of duty committed by their principal after such additional bond was so given and accepted.
Any company with a paid-up cash capital of not less than $250,000, incorporated and organized under the laws of any state of the United States or foreign country, for the purpose of transacting business as surety on obligations of persons or corporations, and which has complied with all the requirements of law regulating the admission of such companies to transact business in this Commonwealth, shall, upon production of evidence of solvency and credit satisfactory to the court or judge or other officer authorized to approve such bond, be accepted as surety upon the bond of any person or corporation required by the laws of this Commonwealth, or by any court, judge or other public officer or board or organization, to execute a bond with surety or sureties. If such surety company shall furnish satisfactory evidence of its ability to provide all the security required as aforesaid, no additional surety shall be exacted. Such surety shall be released from its liability on the same terms and conditions as are by law prescribed for the release of individuals, and shall have all the rights, remedies and reliefs of an individual guarantor, indemnitor or surety, and be subject to all the liabilities thereof.
Any court, judge or other officer whose duty it is to pass upon the account of any person or corporation required to execute a bond with surety or sureties, as hereinbefore provided, shall, whenever any such person or corporation has given any such surety company as surety upon such bond, allow in the settlement of such account a reasonable sum for the expense of securing such surety; but this allowance shall not be made to any state, county, or municipal officer.
Any such company which shall execute any bond as surety under the provisions of this chapter shall be estopped, in any proceedings to enforce the liability which it shall have assumed to incur, to deny its corporate power to execute such instrument or assume such liability.
If any company organized and incorporated under the laws of this Commonwealth, or of any other state in the United States, or of any foreign country, for the purpose of transacting business as surety on obligations for persons, after having complied with the requirements of law regulating the admission of such companies in this Commonwealth, shall give any power of attorney, general or special, under its regular corporate seal, to any agent or attorney in fact to sign its corporate name as surety to any obligation, official or otherwise, required by the laws of this Commonwealth, or by any judge, court or other public officer, organization or board, and such power of attorney shall state that such signing by such agent or attorney in fact without the seal of such corporation shall have the same force and effect as if the corporate seal of such corporation was affixed to such obligations, then any and all such obligations, so signed by such agent or attorney in fact without the seal of such corporation, whether the agent or attorney in fact has used a scroll by way of seal or not, or whether the word “seal” is used in the body of the instrument or not, shall, for all purposes, have the same force and effect, and be as binding in all respects upon such corporation, as if the seal of such corporation had been duly and regularly affixed thereto.
In any instance in which the provisions of this Code require a bond with surety, neither a seal nor a facsimile of a seal shall be required for the validity thereof.
Suits, or motions as provided by § 8.01-227, may be prosecuted from time to time upon any bond mentioned in §§ 49-12 and 49-13, in the name of the Commonwealth, for the benefit of the Commonwealth, a county or any persons injured by any breach of the condition of such bond, as often as any such breach may be alleged, until damages shall be recovered for such breaches equal to the penalty of the bond.
Any bond required by law to be given upon an injunction, appeal, writ of error, supersedeas or other proceeding in a civil suit may be payable to the party entitled to the benefit thereof, notwithstanding anything contained in § 49-12.
If any officer or person mentioned in § 49-12 shall act in his office, post or trust before giving such bonds as are required by law, he shall forfeit not less than $100 nor more than $1,000.
If you are a US citizen, our team will help you EVERY STEP OF THE WAY!
All you have to do is fill out our contact us form and we’ll help you devise a plan in your State.
Our goal is to help people fight tyranny throughout the world!