Except as may otherwise be specifically provided, as used in this title, the term “local school system” shall refer to both any county school system and any independent school system which may be in existence in a county. The terms “local boards of education” and “county boards of education” shall refer to both any county board of education and the board of education of any independent school system which may be in existence in a county.
As used in this article, the term:
for which parental consent is usually required by executing the affidavit described in Code Section 20-1-18. The affidavit shall not be valid for more than one year after the date on which it is executed.
(Ga. L. 1919, p. 288, § 9; Code 1933, § 32-401; Ga. L. 1937, p. 864, §§ 1, 4; Ga. L. 1941, p. 568, § 1; Ga. L. 1943, p. 142, §§ 1, 2; Ga. L. 1943, p. 636, §§ 2, 3, 6; Ga. L. 1972, p. 1015, § 1001; Ga. L. 1996, p. 6, § 20.)
The first State Board of Education appointed under this article shall hold office as follows: two for three years; four for five years; and four for seven years. All of such terms shall date from January 1, 1943. The Governor in making the appointments shall designate the holders of the respective terms. Successors to persons so appointed shall hold terms of office of seven years from the expiration of the previous term. All members of the state board appointed for a first or succeeding full term shall hold office until their successors are appointed and have qualified. Any appointment of a member of the state board for a full term made when the Senate is not in session shall be effective until the appointment is acted on by the Senate.
(Ga. L. 1919, p. 288, § 9; Code 1933, § 32-401; Ga. L. 1937, p. 864, § 1; Ga. L. 1943, p. 636, §§ 4, 7.)
The members of the State Board of Education shall be citizens of this state who have resided in Georgia continuously for at least five years preceding their appointment. No person employed in a professional capacity by a private or public educational institution or by the Department of Education shall be eligible for appointment or to serve on the state board. No person who is or has been connected with or employed by a schoolbook publishing concern shall be eligible for membership on the state board and, if any person shall be so connected or employed after becoming a member of the state board, his place shall immediately become vacant.
(Ga. L. 1919, p. 288, § 9; Code 1933, § 32-401; Ga. L. 1937, p. 864, § 1.)
The members of the State Board of Education shall take an oath of office for the faithful performance of their duties and the oath of allegiance to the federal and state Constitutions. The state board shall meet quarterly in regular session at such time as it may by regulation provide and may hold additional meetings at the call of the chairperson, provided that upon the written request of a majority of the members of the state board, the State School Superintendent shall call a meeting at any time.
(Ga. L. 1919, p. 288, § 10; Code 1933, § 32-402; Ga. L. 1937, p. 864, § 1; Ga. L. 2000, p. 618, § 3; Ga. L. 2012, p. 358, § 1/HB 706.)
(Code 1981, §20-2-85, enacted by Ga. L. 2000, p. 618, § 10.)
An employee of the local school system may serve as a parent representative on the council of a school in which his or her child is enrolled if such employee works at a different school. With the exception of the principal and the business representatives, members shall be elected by, and from among, the group they represent.
An election within the electing body for a replacement to fill the remainder of an unexpired term shall be held within 30 days, unless there are 90 days or less remaining in the term in which case the vacancy shall remain unfilled.
The local board of education shall respond to recommendations of the school council within 60 days after being notified in writing of the recommendation.
In addition to other compensation paid to members of the State Board of Education, the State School Superintendent, and employees of the state board, and to members of boards of education, school superintendents, teachers, principals, officers, and employees of boards of control of cooperative educational service agencies, and other administrators and employees of county and other local public school systems, the state board, the boards of control of cooperative educational service agencies, and the several boards of education of counties, cities, and independent school systems, whenever created, are authorized, in their discretion, to purchase policies of liability insurance or contracts of indemnity insuring or indemnifying the members of the state board, State School Superintendent, employees of the state board, officers and employees of boards of control of cooperative educational service agencies, and the members of the boards of education, superintendents, teachers, principals, and other administrators and employees against damages arising out of the performance of their duties or in any way connected therewith, whether based upon negligence, violation of contract rights, or violation of civil, constitutional, common-law, or other statutory rights, whether state, federal, or both. Such boards may expend state, county, federal, and local funds, or any combination thereof, for such purposes. The amount of such insurance or indemnity shall be in the discretion of the respective board. No action shall be maintained against the person or company issuing such insurance or contracting for such indemnity until final judgment has first been entered against the individual covered by such policy or contract.
Nothing in this article shall be construed as waiving any immunity or privilege now or hereafter enjoyed by the State Board of Education, by the board of control of any cooperative educational service agency, by any local board of education, by any member of any such board, or by any employee of the state board, school superintendent, principal, teacher, administrator, or other employee or as waiving any immunity or privilege of any state or other public body, board, agency, or political subdivision.
In addition to other compensation paid to board members, officers, officials, administrators, and other employees referred to in this part, whether under this part or otherwise, the State Board of Education, local boards of education, or boards of control of cooperative educational service agencies, as the case may be, are authorized to make payment for the amount of the deductible identified in the liability policy or policies; provided, however, that:
Before entering upon the discharge of his or her official duties, the local school superintendent shall take and subscribe to the following oath of office: STATE OF GEORGIA COUNTY OF __________ I, ______________, do solemnly swear or affirm that I will truly perform the duties of local school superintendent of the __________________ School System to the best of my ability. I do further swear or affirm: (1) That I am not the holder of any unaccounted for public money due this state or any political subdivision or authority thereof and that I will manage the finances of the local school system in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations; (2) That I am not the holder of any office of trust under the government of the United States, any other state, or any foreign state which I am by the laws of the State of Georgia prohibited from holding; (3) That I am otherwise qualified to hold said office according to the Constitution and the laws of Georgia; and (4) That I will support the Constitution of the United States and of this state. ________________________________________ Signature of local school superintendent ________________________________________ Typed name of local school superintendent Sworn and subscribed before me this ________ day of ______________, ______. (SEAL).
The county school superintendent and members of the county board of education are authorized to administer oaths necessary in transacting school business or in conducting investigations before the county boards when sitting as judicial tribunals for determining controversies arising under school laws.
The county school superintendent and county board of education shall make rules to govern the county schools of their county.
a. The State Board of Education shall adopt a model code of ethics for members of local boards of education by October 1, 2010. Such model code of ethics shall also include appropriate consequences for violation of a provision or provisions of such code. The State Board of Education may periodically adopt revisions to such model code as it deems necessary.
b. Within three months of adoption by the State Board of Education of a model code of ethics pursuant to subsection (a) of this Code section, each local board of education shall adopt a code of ethics that includes, at a minimum, such model code of ethics. Each local board of education shall incorporate into its code of ethics any revisions adopted by the State Board of Education to the model code of ethics pursuant to subsection (a) of this Code section within three months of adoption of such revisions.
(Code 1981, §20-2-72, enacted by Ga. L. 2010, p. 452, § 8/SB 84.)
The General Assembly finds in regard to the creation of an Education Coordinating Council that said council should:
There is created an education council to be known as the “Education Coordinating Council” or “council” and as used in this chapter, the term “council” shall mean the Education Coordinating Council.
The council shall have the following powers:
The council shall have the following general powers and duties, in addition to any and all other powers enumerated in this article, any or all of which may be exercised by the council directly or by the Office of Student Achievement under the direction and supervision of the council:
Where municipal corporations are not required by statute to perform an act, they may not be held liable for exercising their discretion in failing to perform the act.
A municipal corporation shall not be liable for the torts of policemen or other officers engaged in the discharge of the duties imposed on them by law.
Members of the council and other officers of a municipal corporation shall be personally liable to one who sustains special damages as the result of any official act of such officers if done oppressively, maliciously, corruptly, or without authority of law.
No appointment or election to the office of county treasurer is effective until bond and security is given and the oath of office is taken.
In addition to the oath required of all public officers, before entering on the duties of their office, county treasurers must take the following oath:
“I, ________, do swear that I will faithfully collect, disburse, and account for all moneys or other effects of the county, and otherwise faithfully discharge all the duties required of me by law as county treasurer. So help me God.”
As against the interests of third parties acting in good faith and without notice who may have acquired a transfer or lien binding the real estate of any surety on the bond of any county treasurer situated in any county other than that in which the treasurer holds office, no such real estate of the surety shall be bound from the date of the bond unless the bond is recorded in the county. When the bond is recorded after 30 days, the real estate of the surety situated in any county other than that in which the treasurer holds office shall be bound only from the date on which the bond is recorded.
Nothing in Code Sections 36-6-5 and 36-6-6 shall be construed to affect the validity or force of the lien of any such bond from the date thereof as between the parties thereto.
There must be one county surveyor for each county. The surveyor is empowered to appoint one or more assistants or deputies, for whose conduct he is responsible.
In addition to the oath required of all public officers, the county surveyor must take the following oath before entering on the duties of his office:
“I, ________, swear that I will, to the best of my skill and knowledge, discharge the duties of surveyor of ________ County and that I will not admeasure, survey, or lay out any land, in my capacity as such, or knowingly permit or cause it to be done, without a warrant first obtained for that purpose. So help me God.”
At the same time, he shall give bond and security in the sum of $1,000.00.
(b) (1) Each county governing authority may authorize, through proper resolution or ordinance, the creation of a county police force. No resolution or ordinance adopted pursuant to this paragraph shall become effective until the governing authority of the county has submitted to the qualified electors of the county the question of whether the resolution or ordinance shall be approved or rejected. The county governing authority shall establish the date of the election in compliance with Code Section 21-2-540, which shall be not less than 30 days after the call of the election, and shall notify the county election superintendent of its decision as to the date. The election superintendent shall issue the call for the election and shall specify that the election shall be held on the date determined by the county governing authority. The election superintendent shall cause the date and purpose of the election to be published once a week for two weeks immediately preceding the date thereof in the official organ of the county. The ballot shall have written or printed thereon the following:
“( ) YES Shall the resolution or ordinance adopted by the governing authority of ( Name of County ) to create a ( ) NO county police force be approved?”
Those persons desiring to vote in favor of the creation of a county police force shall vote “Yes,” and those persons opposed to the creation of a county police force shall vote “No.”If more than one-half of the votes cast on the question are in favor of the creation of a county police force, then the county governing authority shall be authorized to create a county police force pursuant to the provisions of this chapter; otherwise, a county police force shall not be created.If the resolution or ordinance is rejected by the qualified electors, the question of the creation of a county police force may not again be submitted to the voters of the county within 48 months immediately following the month in which such election was held.The county election superintendent shall hold and conduct the election under the same rules and regulations as govern special elections, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (1) of this subsection.He shall canvass the returns and declare and certify the result of the election to the Secretary of State.The expense of any such election shall be borne by the county wherein the election was held.
The provisions of subsection (b) of this Code section shall not apply to any county which has created a county police force prior to January 1, 1992, which county police force remains in existence and operational.
Any county police force created by a county governing authority between January 1, 1992, and February 25, 1992, shall be abolished no later than December 31, 1992, unless, prior to said latter date, a resolution or ordinance authorizing the creation of a county police force is adopted by the county governing authority and approved by the qualified electors of the county in a special election as provided in subsection (b) of this Code section.
Upon the election of county police, each of them shall enter into a good and solvent bond, in a sum of not less than $1,000.00, to be fixed by the county governing authority, conditioned for the faithful performance of all their duties. Anyone injured or damaged by any one of such county police may bring an action upon his bond in his name or in the name of the county governing authority for his benefit or use.
Each county and independent system school superintendent must give bond with an approved surety company payable to the county or independent system board of education, the amount to be decided by the board. Such bond must be filed with the judge of the probate court of the county and a copy recorded on the records of the judge of the probate court; and it shall be the duty of the superintendent to send a certified copy of such bond to the State School Superintendent, which copy shall be recorded and kept on file at the State Board of Education.
The bonds of all public officers required by law to give bond, unless otherwise provided, shall be made payable to the Governor and his successor in office. In all cases in which a different condition is not prescribed, such bonds shall be conditioned upon the faithful discharge of the duties of the office by the officer during the time he continues in the office or discharges any of its duties.
Deputies shall give bonds with surety, payable to their principals, for their conduct as deputies, conditioned as and for the same amounts, unless otherwise provided by law, as their principals’ bonds. Such bonds shall be recorded in the same office and in the same manner as the bonds of the principals.
All bonds taken by public officers under the laws of this state shall be returned to the offices specified by law; and any person interested therein may bring an action thereon, in his own name, in any court having jurisdiction thereof.
Official bonds of all officers who are entitled to commissions from the Governor and who are required to give bonds shall be prepared and furnished by the office of the Governor at the time of forwarding the dedimus potestatem.
All bonds that this chapter applies to shall have at least two and not more than 20 good and solvent sureties who shall be worth the amount of said bond, over and above their homestead, in case of county officers, all of whom must be permanent residents of the state and two of whom must also be residents of the county; provided, however, that a surety insurance company which has complied with all requirements to transact business in this state may be accepted as surety upon the bond of any person required by law to execute bonds, in lieu of any other surety or sureties, as provided in Code Section 45-4-6. When the approving court or officers do not know that a surety is worth the required amount, they shall not accept him unless he swears that his means are sufficient in amount, which swearing they shall record on the bond.
Guaranty or surety companies incorporated under the laws of this state or which have complied with all requirements to transact business in this state may become sureties upon the bonds of all state or county officers; and the various officers of this state whose duty it is to approve the sureties upon such bonds are authorized to accept such company or companies as one of the sureties or the only surety upon such bond, as the solvency of such company may warrant.
All county officials who are required to give an official bond shall make bond signed by some surety or guaranty company authorized to do business in this state. The premiums due on all such bonds must be paid by the county fiscal authorities out of county funds, and it shall be mandatory upon the county fiscal authorities in every county in the state to pay the premiums due on all such bonds out of county funds. This Code section shall not apply to county school superintendents’ bonds.
No attorney at law or county officer shall be accepted as surety on the bond of any county officer.
The Governor shall require a new surety and bond for the performance of any public duty by any officer under this chapter when, in the Governor’s discretion:
If any officer shall fail to comply with the requisition of the Governor to furnish a new bond and surety within ten days from the date such officer is served personally with a copy of the executive order containing such requisition, he shall on account of such failure be removed from office and a vacancy declared.
The approval of all official bonds shall be in writing, endorsed on the bonds, and shall show the day and year on which they were approved; and such bonds shall not be filed until thus approved.
The official bonds given for county taxes by the clerks of the superior courts, chief magistrates, magistrates, sheriffs, coroners, county surveyors, county treasurers, county tax collectors, and county tax receivers shall be approved by the judge of the probate court, filed in his office, and recorded by him. The bonds of tax collectors and tax receivers for state taxes, after being likewise approved, shall be recorded by the judge of the probate court; and the original bond shall be transmitted by him to the Governor for deposit in the comptroller general’s office.
The official bonds of public officers, required by law to be filed in the office of the comptroller general, Secretary of State or with the office of the Governor, shall be filed within 40 days after the election or appointment of such officers. All county officers shall have until the first day of January following the election to file their bonds as required by law.
Every officer in whose office the official bond of any public officer is filed shall endorse on such bond the day and year when the same was filed and shall sign his name to such endorsement.
When an official bond is signed by an attorney in fact, the power of attorney shall be attested by the judge of the probate court and filed and recorded in the same manner as the bond.
The judge of the probate court must sign a certificate to the Governor stating that the clerks of the superior courts, chief magistrates, magistrates, sheriffs, coroners, county surveyors, county treasurers, county tax collectors, and county tax receivers have taken the oaths and given the bonds sent from the office of the Governor, together with a statement of the dates, amounts, and names of the sureties of each and that the judges of the probate court have delivered to such officers their commissions. The certificate and statement shall be attested by the clerk of said court, if any, and immediately transmitted to the Governor.
When any officer of whom bond is required shall fail to make and file the same, as prescribed in Code Section 45-4-14, the court or officer in whose office the bond is required to be filed shall at once certify such failure to the appointing power and to the power whose duty it may be to order an election.
If any public officer required by law to give bond shall fail to file the same in the proper office within the time prescribed, notice of such failure shall be given to the Attorney General or to the appropriate prosecuting attorney by the officer in whose office such bond is required to be filed, by or during the first two days of the session of the superior court held in the county in which the officer so failing resides, next after such failure.
Whenever any officer required by law to give an official bond shall act under a bond which is not payable and conditioned or not approved and filed as prescribed by law, such bond shall not be void but shall stand in the place of the official bond, subject, on its condition being broken, to all the remedies, including actions, which the persons aggrieved might have maintained on the official bond.
If any officer whose duty it is to mark a bond filed and to give the several notices required in this chapter shall fail to do so without good and sufficient excuse, he shall be fined as for a contempt of court, in the discretion of the court, upon information being filed and a citation being served to appear before the superior court of the county of his residence.
All bonds taken from public officers shall be kept in the places specified by law and copies thereof shall be furnished to any person desiring them.
Actions on bonds taken from public officers may be brought by any person aggrieved by the official misconduct of the officer, in his own name, in any court in this state having jurisdiction thereof, without an order for that purpose. No such action shall be instituted or maintained in any other state. Except as authorized in this Code section, actions on bonds taken from public officers shall be brought in the name of the Governor and by his written consent or by the written consent of the obligee named in such bond, for the use of such aggrieved person; provided, however, that no action on the bond of any public officer of the state to recover damages flowing to the state or the public on account of the official misconduct of such officer shall be instituted or maintained unless brought in the name of the Governor for the use of the state and by his written authorization. Any such action on the bond of any public officer of any county or other political subdivision of the state to recover damages flowing to such county or other political subdivision or the public shall not be instituted or maintained unless brought in the name of the obligee in such bond for the use of such political subdivision and by the written authorization of the governing body of such political subdivision.
Any person who claims damages of any principal officer for the act of his deputy may, at his option, bring an action on the deputy’s bond instead of on that of the principal, in the same manner as an action may be brought on the principal’s bond.
Official bonds of public officers shall not be discharged by a single recovery, but proceedings against the officer or his sureties or both may be had from time to time until the whole penalty is exhausted; and said bonds are joint and several whether or not so set forth.
When the penalty of the bond is exhausted, the officer himself shall still be liable for the same measure of damages as upon his bond; and he shall likewise be liable for any damage he may do in undertaking to discharge the duties of an office without having given the necessary bond or having given one that is invalid in whole or in part.
The measure of damages recoverable in actions upon all official bonds for the misconduct of the officer, unless otherwise specially enacted, shall be the amount of injury actually sustained, including the reasonable expenses of the action to the plaintiff and the costs of court. In all cases when little or no damage is actually sustained and the officer has not acted in good faith, the jury may find for the plaintiff an amount as exemplary damages which, taking all the circumstances together, shall not be excessive or oppressive.
This chapter shall apply to the official bonds of all public officers of this state, including those whose offices may be established hereafter, unless the contrary is expressly provided.
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